You Must Know This In Korean Verbs

Have you been studying Korean for a while?

If you have been studying for a month or over a year, this topic can still be confusing if you haven’t had a chance to really understand the difference in the two types of verbs.

Intransitive verb VS Transitive verb

Intransitive verb is a type of verb that doesn’t have a direct object in a sentence.
Transitive verb is another type of verb that has one or more than one direct object in a sentence.

I still find this explanation not helpful.. I learned my English as a second language having my native mother tongue as Korean.
I was struggling to understand different language terminologies which got me confused even more..

I wish someone could explain how it worked in sentence examples and got me understand the concept this way.

As a Korean language instructor, I’ve been teaching Korean for about 10 years and helped many students who had a beginner’s level starting from alphabet to a speaking level without really teaching terminologies.

Therefore, I know this method of teaching works! πŸ™‚

Here are two set of verbs that I will explain in this post and if you have questions, please feel free to leave comments below.


Listen to Kpop
Enjoying the sound

1. 듀리닀 VS λ“£λ‹€

듀리닀 and λ“£λ‹€ verbs can both be found as ‘to hear’ and ‘ to listen’ in dictionary, because that’s a natural way to interpret them in English.

However, if you are truly learning Korean and want to learn more about grammar, here is how you can think.

듀리닀 ‘to be heard’

듀리닀 is ‘to be heard’ as the Korean verb doesn’t require a direct object. That means you will always use a subject with this verb and ‘to be heard’ makes most sense and you cannot use an object with ‘to be heard’.

Example 1.

λ©€λ¦¬μ„œ μ†Œλ¦¬κ°€ λ“€λ €μš”. I hear the sound from far away. ➑️ interpret to “The sound from far away is heard.”

In the example, μ†Œλ¦¬ (sound) is a subject noun and κ°€ is the subject particle. There is no object noun.

λ©€λ¦¬μ„œ μ†Œλ¦¬κ°€ λ“€λ €μš”.

Example 2.

응급차 μ‚¬μ΄λŸ° μ†Œλ¦¬κ°€ λ“€λ Έμ–΄μš”. I heard the siren of an emergency vehicle.
➑️ interpret to “The siren of an emergency vehicle was heard.”

응급차 μ‚¬μ΄λŸ° μ†Œλ¦¬ (emergency siren sound) is the subject and κ°€ is the subject particle. There is no object noun.

응급차 μ‚¬μ΄λŸ° μ†Œλ¦¬κ°€ λ“€λ Έμ–΄μš”.

λ“£λ‹€ ‘to hear’ or ‘to listen to’

λ“£λ‹€ is ‘to hear’ and ‘to listen to’. The Korean verb allows/ needs a direct object. Just like the English verbs, they require a direct object.

Example 1.

제 친ꡬ의 쒋은 μ†Œμ‹μ„ λ“€μ—ˆμ–΄μš”. I heard my friend’s good news.

제 친ꡬ의 쒋은 μ†Œμ‹ (my friend’s good news) is a direct object to the verb. 을 is the object particle after a syllable that ends with a consonant. The verb here is λ“£λ‹€ and it’s conjugated to λ“€μ—ˆμ–΄μš” for past tense.
A subject in this sentence is omitted but you can add μ €λŠ” as I with subject particle if you want.

제 친ꡬ의 쒋은 μ†Œμ‹μ„ λ“€μ—ˆμ–΄μš”.

Example 2.

μ €λŠ” μΌ€μ΄νŒμ„ 맀일 λ“€μ–΄μš”. I listen to K-POP every day.

μ € is I in polite and λŠ” is the subject particle. μΌ€μ΄νŒ (K-POP) is the direct object and 을 is the object particle. The verb λ“€μ–΄μš” requires an object.

μ €λŠ” μΌ€μ΄νŒμ„ 맀일 λ“€μ–΄μš”.
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Completion
At the finish line

2. λλ‚˜λ‹€ VS 끝내닀

λλ‚˜λ‹€ ‘to finish’

λλ‚˜λ‹€ is a verb that doesn’t require a direct object noun. English verb ‘to finish’ can have an object or not depending on the context. Therefore, think of the Korean verb as the English verb that doesn’t need an object.

Example 1.

κ·Έ μ˜ν™”κ°€ λλ‚¬μ–΄μš”. The movie finished.

κ·Έ μ˜ν™” is the subject noun and κ°€ is the subject particle. The verb λλ‚¬μ–΄μš” is the past tense and doesn’t allow a direct object.

κ·Έ μ˜ν™”κ°€ λλ‚¬μ–΄μš”.

Example 2.

ν•™κ΅λŠ” 4μ‹œμ— λλ‚˜μš”. School finishes at 4.

학ꡐ is a subject noun and λŠ” is the subject particle. 4μ‹œμ— is ‘at 4’ and λλ‚˜μš” again doesn’t allow a direct object.

ν•™κ΅λŠ” 4μ‹œμ— λλ‚˜μš”.

끝내닀 ‘to complete’

끝내닀 is a verb that requires a direct object. Thus, it’s good to think of this verb as ‘to complete’ in English. Although ‘to finish’ can have a direct object, but that verb also doesn’t require a direct object under some circumstances. Therefore, by thinking it as ‘to complete’, it simplifies remembering the grammar rules.

Example 1.

(μ €λŠ”) μˆ™μ œλ₯Ό λλƒˆμ–΄μš”. I completed the homework.

μ € is I in polite with λŠ” the subject particle and μˆ™μ œ (homework) is the object noun with λ₯Ό object particle. λλƒˆμ–΄μš” is in past tense and required a direct object.

(μ €λŠ”) μˆ™μ œλ₯Ό λλƒˆμ–΄μš”.

Example 2.

(μ €λŠ”) 2μ‹œκΉŒμ§€ 일을 끝내야 λΌμš”. I have to complete work by 2.

μ € is I in polite with λŠ” the subject particle and 2μ‹œκΉŒμ§€ is by two. 일 (work) is the object noun with the 을 object particle. 끝내야 λΌμš” is ‘have to complete’ and required a direct object.

(μ €λŠ”) 2μ‹œκΉŒμ§€ 일을 끝내야 λΌμš”.

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